chandrayaan 2Chandrayaan 2 with Vikram Lander


In the ever-expanding realm of space exploration, India has made significant strides with its lunar missions. Chandrayaan 2 and Chandrayaan 3 are two notable missions undertaken by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). While both missions have the Moon as their target, there are distinct differences between them. This article will explore the dissimilarities and shed light on the advancements brought about by Chandrayaan 3. So, let’s dive into the intriguing world of lunar exploration and compare Chandrayaan 2 and Chandrayaan 3.

Chandrayaan 2: Overview

Chandrayaan 2 was India’s second lunar exploration mission, following the success of Chandrayaan 1. It aimed to further our understanding of the Moon’s topography, mineralogy, and exosphere. Launched in July 2019, Chandrayaan 2 consisted of an orbiter, lander, and rover. The orbiter played a crucial role in mapping the lunar surface, while the lander, named Vikram, carried the rover, Pragyan, for surface exploration. Unfortunately, the lander experienced a communication failure during the descent, resulting in an incomplete mission. However, the orbiter continued to function and provided valuable data.

Chandrayaan 3: Overview

Chandrayaan 3 is the successor to Chandrayaan 2 and represents India’s determination to conquer new frontiers in lunar exploration. Building upon the lessons learned from Chandrayaan 2, ISRO has refined the mission objectives and upgraded the mission components. Chandrayaan 3 aims to achieve a successful soft landing on the lunar surface, which was not accomplished during the previous mission. The focus remains on gathering valuable data about the Moon’s geology, composition, and potential resources.

Objectives of Chandrayaan 2 and Chandrayaan 3

Both Chandrayaan-2 and Chandrayaan-3 share similar objectives, which revolve around advancing our understanding of the Moon. These objectives include studying the lunar surface, analyzing the presence of water molecules, mapping the Moon’s topography, and investigating the lunar exosphere. By accomplishing these objectives, scientists hope to gain insights into the Moon’s origin, evolution, and potential for supporting future human missions.

Mission Components and Upgrades

Chandrayaan-3 benefits from the advancements made in the previous mission. The mission components include an orbiter, lander, and rover, similar to Chandrayaan-2. However, ISRO has implemented improvements to enhance the reliability and success of the landing module. The engineering and technological upgrades in Chandrayaan-3 are focused on overcoming the challenges faced during the descent and ensuring a safe landing.

Launch and Mission Timeline

The launch of Chandrayaan-2 took place on July 22, 2019, from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, India. The mission experienced a setback during the landing phase, but the orbiter remains operational. On the other hand, Chandrayaan-3 is scheduled be launch in July 2023. ISRO is meticulously planning the mission to ensure a successful soft landing, taking into account the valuable lessons learned from Chandrayaan-2.

Scientific Instruments on board

Both missions carry a suite of scientific instruments to accomplish their objectives. The orbiter acts as a data relay and imaging platform, equipped with instruments to capture high-resolution images and study the Moon’s surface. The lander and rover carry payloads for conducting in-situ experiments, analyzing the lunar soil and rocks, and studying the lunar atmosphere.

Discoveries and Contributions

Despite the challenges faced by Chandrayaan-2, the mission has made significant contributions to lunar science. The orbiter’s data has been instrumental in creating detailed maps of the lunar surface and identifying potential landing sites for future missions. Additionally, the mission detected water molecules on the lunar surface, providing crucial evidence of the Moon’s water resources. Chandrayaan-3 aims to build upon these discoveries and further expand our knowledge of the Moon.

Challenges Faced

Lunar missions are incredibly complex and demanding endeavors, often presenting unforeseen challenges. Chandrayaan-2 encountered a communication failure during the landing phase, preventing a successful soft landing. This setback highlighted the technical complexities involved in achieving a controlled descent onto the lunar surface. Chandrayaan-3 aims to overcome these challenges through meticulous planning, upgraded technology, and improved landing systems.

Future Prospects and Research

The advancements made in Chandrayaan-3 will lay the foundation for future lunar missions. The data gathered from these missions will not only contribute to our understanding of the Moon but also aid in planning future manned missions and potential lunar resource utilization. Chandrayaan-3 represents India’s commitment to pushing the boundaries of space exploration and fostering international collaboration in lunar research.


In conclusion, Chandrayaan-2 and Chandrayaan-3 are significant milestones in India’s lunar exploration journey. While Chandrayaan-2 faced setbacks, it provided valuable data and laid the groundwork for the upcoming Chandrayaan-3 mission. With upgraded technology and refined mission objectives, Chandrayaan-3 aims to achieve a successful soft landing on the lunar surface and expand our knowledge of the Moon. These missions exemplify India’s commitment to scientific discovery and pave the way for future exploration and research.

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