chandrayaan 2
Chandrayaan 2 with Vikram Lander


In September 2019, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) embarked on a historic mission with Chandrayaan 2, an ambitious lunar exploration project. The mission aimed to land a rover on the Moon’s surface, analyze its topography, and conduct experiments to expand our understanding of the lunar environment. However, despite meticulous planning and diligent efforts, the mission faced a setback with the failure of the Vikram lander. This article delves into the details of the Chandrayaan 2 failure, the causes behind it, and the valuable lessons learned from this experience.

The Chandrayaan 2 Mission

Chandrayaan 2 was India’s second lunar exploration mission, following the successful Chandrayaan 1. The primary objective of Chandrayaan 2 was to soft-land the Vikram lander near the lunar south pole and deploy the Pragyan rover for scientific research. This mission aimed to explore uncharted territories and gather data that would contribute to our knowledge of the Moon’s origin and evolution.

The Vikram Lander Incident

Unfortunately, during the final descent phase, the Vikram lander deviated from its intended trajectory and communication with the lander was lost. Despite extensive efforts to establish contact, the mission could not be salvaged. The incident was undoubtedly disheartening for the entire scientific community and the nation as a whole. However, setbacks are an inevitable part of any exploratory endeavor, and they serve as valuable learning experiences.

Causes of the Failure

The failure of the Chandrayaan 2 mission can be attributed to various factors. While the specific details are known only to the ISRO scientists involved, preliminary findings shed light on some potential causes. These include technical challenges, communication breakdown, and the inherent complexities of space exploration.

Technical Challenges Faced

Space missions are immensely complex and involve numerous intricate systems working together seamlessly. The Chandrayaan 2 mission faced several technical challenges, including the precision required for the soft landing, managing the descent velocity, and ensuring the proper functioning of the propulsion systems. These challenges demand meticulous engineering and rigorous testing to overcome the complexities of such missions.

Communication Breakdown

Communication plays a vital role in the success of any space mission. However, during the descent of the Vikram lander, a communication breakdown occurred, resulting in the loss of vital data and the inability to correct the lander’s trajectory. Establishing reliable and uninterrupted communication in challenging lunar conditions remains a significant obstacle for future lunar missions.

Lessons Learned

The Chandrayaan 2 failure serves as a crucial learning experience for the Indian space program. It highlights the importance of meticulous planning, rigorous testing, and continuous monitoring throughout every phase of the mission. It has reinforced the significance of redundancy in critical systems, the need for effective communication protocols, and the requirement for robust error detection and correction mechanisms.

Overcoming Setbacks

Failure is an integral part of progress, and setbacks provide an opportunity for growth. The Chandrayaan 2 mission has motivated ISRO to further enhance its capabilities and develop advanced technologies to overcome the challenges faced. The Indian space program has already made significant strides in subsequent missions and remains committed to pursuing its ambitious goals of space exploration.

Future Space Exploration Goals

The Chandrayaan 2 mission, despite its setback, has not deterred the Indian space program from pursuing its dreams of space exploration. ISRO has set its sights on several upcoming missions, including Chandrayaan 3, which aims to build upon the lessons learned and rectify the shortcomings of the previous mission. Additionally, ISRO is actively collaborating with international partners, contributing to collective efforts in expanding our understanding of the universe.


The Chandrayaan 2 mission encountered a setback with the failure of the Vikram lander, but it stands as a testament to the indomitable spirit of exploration and discovery. The lessons learned from this experience have paved the way for improvements in future missions and have strengthened ISRO’s resolve to contribute to the field of space exploration. Setbacks are inevitable, but they serve as stepping stones towards success.


1. Was Chandrayaan 2 successful?

Despite the failure of the Vikram lander, the mission was not entirely unsuccessful. The orbiter component of Chandrayaan 2 continues to operate successfully and has provided valuable data and insights about the Moon’s surface.

2. Did Chandrayaan 2 landed on moon?

Yes, Chandrayaan 2, the Indian lunar mission, attempted to land on the moon. However, during the landing attempt on September 7, 2019, contact with the lander was lost just moments before it was supposed to touch down on the lunar surface. Despite the lander not landing successfully, the orbiter component of Chandrayaan 2 remains operational and continues to orbit the moon, conducting scientific experiments and gathering data.

3. What were the primary scientific objectives of Chandrayaan 2?

The main objectives of Chandrayaan 2 were to study the lunar surface, conduct experiments to analyze the mineral composition, and examine the presence of water molecules and ice in the south polar region.

4. Has ISRO made any changes based on the Chandrayaan 2 failure?

Yes, ISRO has made significant changes and improvements in its subsequent missions, incorporating lessons learned from the Chandrayaan 2 mission failure. These include enhanced engineering, testing procedures, and communication protocols.

5. How does Chandrayaan 2 contribute to future space exploration?

Chandrayaan 2 has provided valuable insights and data that contribute to our understanding of the Moon and its environment. The knowledge gained from this mission is instrumental in planning future lunar missions and potential human exploration endeavors.

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